Carter, Christy S., PhD

Published: March 15th, 2012

Category: Faculty, IOA Executive Board

Profile Picture


Research Assistant Professor and Director, Educational Programs
Department of Aging and Geriatric Research
Institute on Aging
Leader, Pilot and Exploratory Studies Core
UF Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center


2004 Mowry Road, Gainesville, Fl 32611

PO Box 100107, Gainesville, FL 32610.


Departmental Affiliation

Department of Aging and Geriatric Research


1991, BA, Psychology
University of Colorado at Colorado Springs
1998, PhD, Experimental and Biological Psychology (minor in Neurobiology)
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


Research Assistant Professor, Department of Aging and Geriatric Research


Dr. Carter’s major contribution to the field of aging has been in establishing rodent models of functional decline in aging. Dr. Carter has demonstrated that various anti-hypertensive medications may be used in aged, normotensive rodents to prevent age-related declines in physical performance (i.e. these drugs result in improved health-span). Moreover, she has demonstrated that these specific compounds, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), administered late in life, result in decreased overall age-related adiposity, inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in skeletal muscle. Similar results were found in kidney and heart, and even reduced age-related tumorogenesis. She has extended this area of research to other special aging populations such as the frail and obese, and has developed combinatorial therapies, using these compounds in conjunction with behavioral modification such as exercise. Of critical importance is that this body of research directly lead Dr. Carter to initiate working closely with clinical researchers to develop small clinical trials in humans using a similar approach. This interaction emphasizes her translational approach to preventing physical disability in the elderly.

Professional Interests

Translational models of declining physical and cognitive performance. Role of the renin-angiotensin system in physical decline and sarcopenia. Pain and aging and disability.


a. Books, Contributor of Chapter(s)

 Carter, CS and Sonntag, WE. “Growth Hormone, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and the Biology of Aging” (Chapter 20) In: Masoro E.J. and Austad S. N. eds., Handbook of the biology of aging, sixth edition, 2005, Elsevier, United Kingdom.

b. Refereed Publications

 * Graduate Student; **Post-Doc; ***Fellow; **** Undergrad

Marzetti E, Calvani R, Dupree J****, Lees HA, Giovannini S, Seo D, Buford TW, Sweet K****, Morgan D, Strehler KYE*, Diz D, Borst SE, Moningka N*, Krotova K, Carter CS.  Late-life enalapril administration induces nitric oxide-dependent and independent metabolic adaptation in the rat skeletal muscle.  Age (Dordr.), in press.

Morgan D, Mitzelfelt JD*, Koerper L, and Carter CS. Effects of morphine on thermal sensitivity in adult and aged rats. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011 Dec 21. [Epub ahead of print].

Groban L, Lindsey S, Wang H, Lin MS, Kassik KA, Machado FSM, Carter CS.  Differential Effects of Late-Life Initiation of Low-Dose Enalapril and Losartan on Diastolic Function in Senescent Fischer 344 × Brown Norway Male Rats.  Age (Dordr). 2011 Jul 1. [Epub ahead of print].

Giovannini S, Onder G, Liperoti R, Russo A, Carter C, Capoluongo E, Pahor M, Bernabei R, Landi F. Interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha as predictors of mortality in frail, community-living elderly individuals. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Sep;59(9):1679-85.

Kim JM*, Heo HS, Choi YJ, Ye BH, Seo AY*, Yu BP, Leeuwenburgh C, Chung HY, Carter CS.  Inhibition of NF-κB-induced inflammatory responses by angiotensin II antagonists in aged rat kidney. Exp. Gerontol, 2011: 46(7) 542-548.

Carter CS, Giovaninni S**, Seo DO, DuPree J****, Morgan D, Chunh HY, Lees H, Daniels M, Hubbard GB, Lee S, Ikeno Y, Foster TC, Buford TW, Marzetti E.  Differential effects of enalapril and losartan on body composition and indices of muscle quality in aged male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats.  Age (Dordr). 2011: 33 (2) 167-183.

Zhang Y, Rodrigues E, Li G, Gao Y, King M, Carter CS, Tumer N, Chen KY, Scarpace PJ.  Simultaneous POMC gene transfer to hypothalamus and brainstem increases physical activity, lipolysis and reduces adult-onset obesity. Eur J Neurosci. 2011: 33 (8) 1541-1550.

Moningka N*, Carter CS, Croker BP, Sasser J, Baylis C. Protection against age-dependent renal injury in the F344xBrown Norway male rat is associated with maintained nitric oxide synthase. Mech Aging Dev. 2011: 132(1-2) 1-7.

Mitzelfelt JD*, DuPree JP****, Seo DO, Carter CS, Morgan D. Effects of chronic fentanyl administration on physical performance of aged rats. Exp.Gerontol. 46: 65-72, 2010.

Zhang Y, Rodrigues E, Gao YX, KingM, Cheng KY, Erdos B, Tumer N, Carter C, Scarpace PJ.  Pro-opiomelanocortin gene transfer to the nucleus of the solitary track but not arcuate nucleus ameliorates chronic diet-induced obesity. Neuroscience. 2010 Sep 15;169(4):1662-71.

Shapiro A, Cheng KY, Gao Y, Seo DO, Anton S, Carter CS, Zhang Y, Tumer N, Scarpace PJ. The Act of Voluntary Wheel Running Reverses Dietary Hyperphagia and Increases Leptin Signaling in Ventral Tegmental Area of Aged Obese Rats. Gerontology. 1;57(4):335-342

Yezierski RP, King CD, Morgan D, Carter CS, Vierck CJ. Effects of age on thermal sensitivity in the rat. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences Medical Sciences. 2010;65(4):353-362.

Xu J**, Seo AY*, Vorobyeva DA, Carter CS, Anton SD, Lezza AMS, Leeuwenburgh C. Beneficial Effects of a Q-ter-« Based Nutritional Mixture on Functional Performance, Mitochondrial Function, and Oxidative Stress in Rats. PLoS ONE 2010; 5 (5):e10572

Marzetti E**, Wohlgemuth SE**, Anton SD, Bernabei R, Carter CS, Leeuwenburgh C. Cellular mechanisms of cardioprotection by calorie restriction: state of the science and future perspectives. Clin Geriatr Med 25:715-32, ix, 2009

Giovannini S**, Onder G, Leeuwenburgh C, Carter C, Marzetti E, Russo A, Capoluongo E, Pahor M, Bernabei R, Landi F. Myeloperoxidase levels and mortality in frail community-living elderly individuals. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 65:369-376, 2010

Buford TW, Anton SD, Judge AR, Marzetti E**, Wohlgemuth SE**, Carter CS, Leeuwenburgh C, Pahor M, Manini TM. Models of accelerated sarcopenia: Critical pieces for solving the puzzle of age-related muscle atrophy. Ageing Res Rev 2010;9(4):369-383.

Harrison DE, Strong R, Sharp ZD, Nelson JF, Astle CM, Flurkey K, NadonNL, Wilkinson JE, Frenkel K, Carter CS, Pahor M, Javors MA, Fernandez E, Miller RA.  Rapamycin fed late in life extends lifespan in genetically heterogeneous mice. Nature. 2009; 460: 392-395.

Marzetti E**, Carter CS, Wohlgemuth SE**, Lees HA, Giovannini S**, Anderson B, Quinn LS, Leeuwenburgh C. Changes in IL-15 expression and death-receptor apoptotic signaling in rat gastrocnemius muscle with aging and life-long calorie restriction. Mech Ageing Dev 130:272-280, 2009.

Carter CS, Leeuwenburgh C, Daniels M, Foster TC.  Influence of calorie restriction on measures of age-related cognitive decline: role of increased physical activity. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2009; 64: 850-859.

Rangaraju S*, Hankins D, Madorsky I, Madorsky E, Lee WH, Carter CS, Leeuwenburgh C, Notterpek L. The molecular architecture of myelinated peripheral nerves is supported by calorie restriction with aging. Aging Cell. 2009; 8(2): 178-191.

Xu J**, Knutson MD, Carter CS, Leeuwenburgh C. Iron accumulation with age, oxidative stress and functional decline. PLoS ONE 2008;3(8):e2865.

Judge MK*, Tumer, N, Carter C, Scarpace PJ. Unexpected Prolonged Hyperphagia with High-fat Feeding Contributes to Exacerbated Weight Gain in Rats with Adult-Onset Obesity. AJP Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2008 Sep; 295 (3): R773-80.

Carter CS, Groban L. Role of the renin-angiotensin system in age-related sarcopenia and diastolic dysfunction. Aging Health 2008; (4): 37-46.

Adams M***, Shi l***, Linville MC, Forbes ME, Long AB, Bennett C, Newton IG*, Carter CS, Sonntag WE, Riddle DR, Brunso-Bechtold JK.  Caloric Restriction and Age Affect Synaptic Proteins in Hippocampal CA3 and Spatial Learning Ability. Experimental Neurology.2008; 211 (1): 141-149.

Marzetti E**, Groban L, Wohlgemuth SE**, Lees H A, Lin M, Jobe H, Giovannini S**, Leeuwenburgh C, Carter CS. Effects of short-term GH supplementation and treadmill exercise training on physical performance and skeletal muscle apoptosis in old rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2008; (294): R558-R567.

Borst SE, Conover CF, Carter CS, Gregory CM**, Marzetti E, Leeuwenburgh C, Vandenborne K, and Wronski TJ. Anabolic effects of testosterone are preserved during inhibition of 5{alpha}-reductase. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 293:E507-E514.

You T***, Sonntag WE, Leng X, Carter CS. Lifelong caloric restriction and interleukin-6 secretion from adipose tissue: effects on physical performance decline in aged rats. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2007; (62): 1082-1087.

Kalani R****, Judge S*, Carter C, Pahor M, Leeuwenburgh C. Effects of caloric restriction and exercise on age-related, chronic inflammation assessed by C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2006; (61): 211-217.

Groban L, Pailes NA*, Bennett CDL, Carter CS, Chappell MC, Kitzman DW, Sonntag WE.  Growth hormone replacement attenuates diastolic dysfunction and cardiac angiotensin II expression in senescent rats. J Gerontol Series A: Biol. Sci., 2006; 61:28-35.

Mangani I**, Cesari M***, Kritchevsky SB, Maraldi C***, Carter CS, Atkinson HH, Penninx BW, Marchionni N, Pahor M. Physical exercise and comorbidity. Results from the Fitness and Arthritis in Seniors Trial (FAST).Aging Clin Exp Res. 2006 Oct;18(5):374-80.

Shi L**, Adams MM**, Long A, Carter CS, Bennett C, Sonntag WE, Nicolle MM, Robbins M, D’Agostino R, Brunso-Bechtold JK. Spatial learning and memory deficits after whole-brain irradiation are associated with changes in NMDA receptor subunits in the hippocampus. Radiat Res. 2006 Dec;166(6):892-9.

Sonntag WE, Carter CS, Ikeno Y, Ekenstedt K, Carlson CS, Loeser RF, Chakrabarty S, Lee S, Bennett C, Ingram R, Moore T, Ramsey M*. Adult-onset growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I deficiency reduces neoplastic disease, modifies age-related pathology, and increases life span. Endocrinology, 2005;146(7):2920-32.

Carter CS, Onder G***, Kritchevsky SB, Pahor M. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition intervention in elderly persons: effects on body composition and physical performance. J Gerontol Series A: Med Sci., 2005;60(11):1437-46.

Kasper SO*, Carter CS, Ferrario CM, Ganten D, Ferder LF, Sonntag WE, Gallagher PE, Diz DI. Growth, metabolism, and blood pressure disturbances during aging in transgenic rats with altered brain rennin-angiotensin systems.  Physiological Genomics, 2005 Nov; 23(3):311-7.

Cesari M***, Laureatani F, Penninx BWHJ, Russo CR, Carter CS, Onder G***, Atkinson H***, Bandinelli S, Ferrucci L, Pahor M. Hemoglobin levels and skeletal muscle: results from the InCHIANTI study. J Gerontol Series A: Med Sci, 2004;59:249-54.

Carter CS, Cesari M***, Ambrosius WT, Hu N, Diz D, Oden S*, Sonntag WE, Pahor M.  Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, body composition and physical performance in aged rats. J Gerontol Series A: Biol Sci. 2004;59:416-23.

Ramsey MM*, Weiner JL, Moore TP, Carter CS, Sonntag WE.  Growth hormone treatment attenuates age-related deficits in short-term plasticity and spatial learning. Neuroscience 2004;129 (1):119-27.

Carter CS, Sonntag WE, Onder G***, Pahor M. Physical performance and longevity in aged rats. J  Gerontol Series A: Biol Sci. 2002;57:B193-197.

Onder G***, Penninx BW, Balkrishnan P, Fried LP, Chaves PHM, Williamson JD, Carter CS, DiBari M, Guralnik JM, Pahor M. Relation between use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and muscle strength and physical function in older women: an observational study. Lancet. 2002;359:926-930.

Stanton ME, Fox GD*, Carter CS*. Ontogeny of the conditioned eyeblink response in rats: Acquisition or expression?  Neuropsychopharm. 1998;37:623-632.

Sawin S, Brodish P, Carter CS*, Stanton ME, Lau C. Development of cholinergic neurons in rat brain regions:  Dose dependent effects of propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism. Neurotox Teratol. 1998;20:627-635.

Freeman JH*, Jr, Carter CS*, Stanton ME. Early cerebellar lesions impair eyeblink conditioning in developing rats: Differential effects of unilateral lesions on postnatal day 10 or 20. Behav Neurosci. 1995;109:893-902.

Carter CS*, Freeman JH* Jr, Stanton ME. Neonatal medial prefrontal lesions and recovery of spatial delayed alternation: Effects of delay interval. Develop Psych. 1995;28:269-279.

Andrews SJ****, Freeman JH* Jr, Carter CS*, Stanton ME. Ontogeny of eyeblink conditioning in the rat:  Auditory frequency and discrimination learning effects. 1995;Develop Psych. 28:307-320.

Volpe BT, Hendrix CS*, Park DH, Towle AC, Davis HP. Early post-natal administration of 5,7-DHT destroys 5-HT neurons and terminals but does not affect spatial memory. Brain Res. 1992;589:262-267

c. Reviews

Carter CS, Marzetti E**, Leeuwenburgh C, Manini T, Foster TC, Groban L, Scarpace PJ, Morgan D.  Usefulness of preclinical models for assessing the efficacy of late-life interventions for sarcopenia. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Jan;67(1):17-27.

Marzetti E**, Hwang JC*, Lees HA, Wohlgemuth SE, Dupont-Versteegden EE, Carter CS, Bernabei R, Leeuwenburgh C. Mitochondrial death effectors: relevance to sarcopenia and disuse muscle atrophy. Biochim.Biophys.Acta. 2010; 1800 (3):235-244.

Chung HY, Cesari M, Anton S, Marzetti E**, Giovannini S**, Seo AY*, Carter C, Yu BP. Molecular inflammation: underpinnings of aging and age-related diseases. Ageing Res Rev 2009 Jan;8(1):18-30.

Morgan D, Carter CS, DuPree J****, Yezierski RP, Vierck CJ.  Evaluation of prescription opioids using operant-based pain measures in rats.  Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2008 Oct;16(5):367-375. Author contributed equally to the first author in preparation of this manuscript.

Carter CS, Hofer T**, Seo AY*, Leeuwenburgh C. Molecular mechanisms of life- and health-span extension: role of calorie restriction and exercise intervention. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007 Oct;32(5):954-966.Carter CS, Onder G****, Kritchevsky SB, Pahor M.  Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition intervention in elderly persons: effects on body composition and physical performance. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005 Nov 60(11):1437-46.

Sonntag WE, Ramsey M, Carter CS. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and their influence on cognitive aging. Ageing Res Rev. 2005 May 4(2):195-212.

Sonntag WE, Carter CS, Ramsey M*. What do dwarf models reveal about the mechanisms of aging? Sci Aging Knowledge Environment (online journal), 2002.

Carter CS, Sonntag WE, Ramsey M*. Models of growth hormone and IGF-1 deficiency: application to studies of aging processes and lifespan determination. J Gerontol Series A: Biol Sci. 2002;57:177-188.

Carter CS, Sonntag WE, Ramsey M*. A critical analysis of the role of growth hormone and IGF-1 in aging and lifespan. Trends in Genetics. 2002;18:295-301.

Carter CS, Sonntag WE, Pahor M. Assessment of physical function in aging rodents: A strategy for improving preclinical testing. Exp Aging Res. 2001;27:271-82.